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Center History

CHOPR Founder and Director, Dr. Linda H. Aiken, established the Center for Health Outcomes and Policy Research, in 1989, to explore organizational effectiveness in health care with the potential to affect patient outcomes. 

“Our policy research agenda is motivated by a commitment to improving health care outcomes by building an evidence base for health service management and providing direction for national policymakers.” Linda H. Aiken, PhD, RN, FAAN, Director

AIDS Research Projects Launch the Center for Health Outcomes and Policy Research

January 1, 1988 | Dr. Linda H. Aiken came to the University of Pennsylvania from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation where she served as Vice President. As one of the first Trustee Professors to join the School of Nursing, she began immediately to use the research funding component of the professorship. More

1993 - 2002

Dr. Aiken goes to Washington as Co-Chair of the Health Care Workforce Subcommittee

January 1993 | President Clinton launched a reform effort to provide universal coverage using “managed competition” and appointed the First Lady to assemble the health care reform task force.  The Washington Post listed Aiken as a task force leader along with the White House chief health-care policy advisor, a former deputy assistant secretary for health policies; and, a former second lady. More


Multi-Country Study of Hospital Restructuring launches with CHOPR-Led Meeting

November 1996 | The early stages of the RN4CAST International study on how organizational features of hospital care impact on nurse recruitment and retention and patient outcomes started in 1996 with the CHOPR-led meeting at the Rockefeller Foundation’s Bellagio Study and Conference Center in Italy. CHOPR Founder, Dr. Linda H. Aiken, and Penn Nursing Dean, Dr. Claire M. Fagin (shown left with Dr. James Buchan) brought together experts in the hospital sector, public policy, health workforce, and health outcomes research from five countries—US, Canada, England, Scotland, and Germany. More


Landmark Institute of Medicine (IOM) report, To Err is Human is published.

November 1999 |it is widely recognized in  patient safety and health outcomes circles that CHOPR’s earliest investigations in the field played a key role in the crafting the IOM Quality Reports. Recommendations from the landmark Institute of Medicine report still impacts hospital organization, nurse work environments and patient safety today. More


CHOPR Receives NIH funding to educate doctoral students in “Advanced Training in Nursing Outcomes” in December 1999

January 2000 | We are proud of the many brilliant nurse leaders who began their journey with the faculty of the Center for Health Outcomes and Policy Research and have continued to make a huge impact on health care, economics, and society. More


CHOPR’s Layered history of racial and ethnic disparities research helps identify factors of nursing that influence minority patient outcomes

May 2002 | The Institute of Medicine’s report, Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care documented differences in the care, treatment, and outcomes for black patients compared to white patients. At the forefront, CHOPR sought to further investigate hospital characteristics that underlie care inequalities. More

2003